Link : www.ipcnet.org (International Pepper Community)
PEPPER. Peppercorn named drupe before being dried, is the fruit of a vine of the Piperaceae family. The plant, which can grow up to 4 meters, gives fruit after three to five years. The yield of the plant increases by three to ten kg per year from the third to the seventh year, afterwards the productivity decrease up to two kg per year. The harvest starts from May to September depending to the region, and is done at different times according to the type of pepper desired:
– Black pepper: not yet fully ripe grapes, it means yellow grains with some red beans
– White pepper: ripe grapes where the grains are at least ¾ red
– Green pepper: unripe clusters with at most 10% yellow grains.
The main exporters in descending order in volume terms are Vietnam, Brazil, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, China Thailand and Madagascar.
The green and white peppers are used only in the food industry, while the black pepper is also used in the fragrance industry and pharmacy in essential oil form. The Pepper, a very appreciated and valued spice since 4000 years before Christ, owes its piquant flavour to the piperine.
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